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By: Nicksmith
It is not the time when people are not known about genetics or antibodies. Genetic studies or research in the present times is not extended as a new term for the world. Every day in the media, televisions, magazines the new inventions of genetic research news are noticed. Genetic research may be described as the practice that manipulates organism's genes in order to produce a desired outcome. Other techniques that fall under this group are recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification and gene splicing.The beginning of genetic research and studies are connected to the ancient times. The Bible also throws some light on genetic research and studies where selective breeding has been mentioned. Modern genetic research and studies began in when scientists used enzymes to cut a bacteria plasmid and inserted another strand of DNA in the gap created. Both bits of DNA were taken from the same type of bacteria. This step became the milestone in the history of genetic research and studies. Recently in the early nineties, a child with an extremely poor immune system received genetic therapy in which some of her white blood cells were genetically operated and were inserted into her bloodstream so that her immune system may work properly. To meet the growing demand for synthetic genes, more robust, scalable and inexpensive gene assembly technologies must be developed. Methods for large-scale, high-quality gene synthesis at ancheap price are needed for advances in both synthetic biology and biotechnology.

The development of researches

It is true that researchers have removed the time and money consuming antibody and protein purification steps through the use of hybridization-based selection embedded in the assembly process. The protocol was tested on mixtures of up to two thousand crude oligo-nucleotides taken directly from microchips. The oligos were used directly for assembly of several test genes of different sizes. Gene quality was assessed by sequencing, and their activity was tested in coupled in vitro translation reactions. Genes assembled from the microchip-eluted material using the new protocol matched the quality of the genes assembled from pure column-synthesized oligo-nucleotides by the standard protocol and genes assembled from microchip-eluted material without clonal selection produced only 30% less protein than sequence-confirmed clones. The scientists generally deal with three main aspects such as the gene to be transferred, a host cell into which the gene is inserted, and a vector to bring about the transfer. First of all, the necessary genes to be operated have to be 'isolated' from the main DNA helix. Then, the genes are 'inserted' into a transfer medium such as the plasmid. Third, the transfer medium is inserted into the organism intended to be modified. Following this step is the element transformation whereby several different methods including DNA guns, bacterial transformation, and viral insertion can be used to apply the transfer medium to the new organism. Lastly, a stage of separation occurs, where the genetically modified organism is lonely from other organisms which have not been successfully modified.

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